Bewusstseinsstufen und Naturreiche: Versuche zur Naturphilosophie
Teil II: Ursachenlehre und Stufen der Natur
Levels of consciousness and order of nature: elements of a natural philosophy, part
II: causality and levels of nature
Background and objective: In modern conceptions of causality causes are treated
as conditions and effects as consequences. In view of the fact that natural processes
and human behavior cannot be reduced to physical processes one may ask if such
processes cannot be embedded within an universal theory of causality. It may be
possible for a substantially enhanced theory of causality to become important for
the natural sciences including human beings.
Materials and methods: Using the background of a universal epistemology, four
types of causality are differentiated within a universal theory of causality, including
physical, organic and psychic natural processes as well as the spiritual dimension
of free actions of human beings.
Results: The different modes of causality correspond to some levels of the
process of conception, as well as to different levels of universals and to different
qualities of knowledge acquisition. Further connections apply to organizational
dimensions of the human being. These results have practical consequences for an
individual approach to different realms of nature.
Conclusion: A theory of causality which is based on the human faculties of
individual knowing, independent thinking and autonomous action may bring with
it a deeper understanding of the relational structure of the natural processes and
thus contribute to a specific understanding of the different levels of nature. [...]