Schritte zur Komplementarität in der Genetik
The appearance of adaptive mutations in bacteria raises basic questions about the genetic theory of spontaneous mutation and hence the concept of the generation of biological variation. Adaptive mutations were observerd in bacteria exposed to selective conditions during the stationary phase of growth in the absence of DNA replication. Both anabolic and catabolic traits are affected. None of the classical explanations, which depend on errors and irregularities during the replication process, is able to account for these mutations. Various observations suggest new mechanisms for the generation of genetic variation. The theory of adaptive mutations opens the pave for the introduction of complementarity in modern genetics. Theories of adaptive mutations elaborated before the era of molecular genetics argue strongly for holistic approaches to life and heredity. They make a revision of the current concepts of reductionist biology necessary. A synthesis is presented that considers the function of spontaneous as well as adaptive mutations in the development and evolution of organisms. Both forms of mutations reflect the fundamental quality inherent among all living beings; i.e. self—relation and world-relation.